Their argument is that towards the end of the twentieth century humankind started to experience what Hans Kung calls a Macro-Paradigm-Shift—humanity now understands the world and human responsibility in global, not local terms.
A Second Axial Age What some say caused the first axial shift was the collision of tribal cultures with face-to-face relations because of the rise of commerce and urban life. The simultaneous appearance of thinkers and philosophers in different areas Axial age the world had been remarked by numerous authors since the 18th century, notably by the French Indologist Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron.
This pattern is vast, and yet we can in this unique case get a better sense of it from a high-level view beyond the details, a stroke of good fortune. We see the generalized resemblance of all the exemplars, but each is also unique.
The second, related to the first, is of the mysterious drumbeat pattern of turning points or transitions proceeding down a mainline of the diversity of civilizations.
The second axial shift, then, represents the collision of earlier cultural spheres, each of which imposed their own monologues onto the world. This new self-consciousness is also open to the reality of the spiritual dimension, to the sanctity of life.
As they explore the varieties of theorizing that arose during the period, they consider how these in turn led to utopian visions that brought with them the possibility of both societal reform and repression.
Understanding this transitional era, the authors contend, is not just an academic project but a humanistic endeavor. With the forest philosophers who renounce history, India creates a protected zone, a parallel world in the Axial spectrum.
Everything implied by these names developed during these few centuries almost simultaneously in China, India and the West. This statement says nothing about the birth of Greek science, or the birth of democracy in the Greek Axial period.
In effect, this process has resulted in globalization —a single technology now circles the world. The chief virtue of women in classical Athens was said to be their silence and submission. Let us designate this period as the "axial age.
The phenomenon does not emerge by slow evolution from the prior state of these separate cultures. Early Rome We should include the case of Rome either by itself or as a cousin of the Greek case. All the vast development of which these names are a mere intimation took place in those few centuries, independently and almost simultaneously in China, India and the West… This is also the time of the great empires of antiquity the Romansthe Macedonians, the Thracian Empireswhich disseminated culture, legal frameworks, and a sense of belonging to larger realities across tribal and ethnic boundaries.
We see that some dynamic is operating independently of the politics of cultures and empires in the reactions of religion to state integration. The spiritual process which took place between and B.
There is some kind of global factor operating independently of particular civilizations.
If this is true, then globalization is not a new phenomenon but the revival of an old one. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in Europe and North America, this period was romanticized but Hippocrates and Galen still form the basis of medical science.
The resulting globalization has forced the development of an ethical system for a unified world, as represented by the movement for a global ethic spearheaded by Hans Kung and Swidler. The Origin and Goal of History.
Israelite, Indic, Chinese, Roman. Buddhafor example, had to be persuaded to allow women to join his community and encumbered them with many more precepts than he did men.The Axial Age. What is the Axial Age? Major shift in human thinking c BCE CE.
most activity from c BCE to c. BCE; spread out geographically from East Mediterranean to China. The term literally means “to go beyond.” In the case of the Axial Age “revolution” in human thought about the world, “going beyond” has several meanings, according to the Canadian philosopher and sociologist Charles Taylor.
From Axial Age thinkers we inherited a sense of the world as a place not just to experience but to investigate, envision, and alter. A variety of utopian visions emerged and led to both reform and repression.
The Axial Age is defined by Jaspers as occurring in the interval from about – to –, but a closer analysis suggests the need to modify and break up this interval. However, the basic point is clear. Karl Jaspers ( - ) pioneered the idea of the Axial Age. According to Jaspers, the period between to B.C.E.
was the time in which all foundations that underlie current civilization came into being. Some extend the Axial period as late at C.E.
The Axial Age plays a central, foundational, or crucial role in human history.
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from German: Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.Download