In many such languages, the gender as a grammatical category of a noun is only tangentially related to the gender of the thing the noun represents.
The most salient English examples are the adverbs "here" and "there" and the demonstratives "this" and "that"—although those are far from being the only deictic words.
For example, if one were to write It is raining now, but I hope when you read this it will be sunny. First, what kinds of relational features are encoded in deictic types? The linguistic expression of deixis extends far beyond these initial distinctions. Among the most elaborate systems reported in the literature is Inuktitut Denny,pp.
But when describing actual deictic practice, it is essential to take into account the other two relations as well: This type of social deixis is found in a variety of languages, but is especially common in South and East Asia.
In languages like English with gendered pronouns, the third-person masculine pronoun has traditionally been used as a default when using "it" is inappropriate but the gender of its antecedent is unknown or inapplicable. This relation may be marked by a high degree of common ground and mutual knowledge, or by relevant asymmetries of perceptual field, social status, knowledge of the matter at hand, rights and responsibilities, and so forth.
In other languages, the distinction is three-way or higher: The following examples show how. A simple example is when an object is pointed at and referred to as "this" or "that". Click to view larger Figure 1. Spr—Adr and Adr—Obj Hanks, There is widespread agreement in studies of natural language deixis that indexicality designates the context dependency between utterances and speech contexts, and that deictics are a special kind of indexical, used to make reference to single objects or groups of objects in relation to the context of utterance.
To each their own. However, the category can include other types of information than pointing, such as direction of gaze, tone of voice, and so on. A cataphoric reference refers to something within a text that has not yet been identified.
For example, the meaning of the phrase "the Queen" may be determined by the country in which it is spoken. Traditional categories[ edit ] Possibly the most common categories of contextual information referred to by deixis are those of person, place, and time—what Fillmore calls the "major grammaticalized types" of deixis.
In the adnominal cases, the lexical expansion provides descriptive information about the demonstratum, in a sense filling in the semantics to complement the leaner indexical.
Place[ edit ] Place deixis, also known as space deixis, concerns itself with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance. It shattered loudly" the word "it" refers to the phrase "the plate". This phenomenon is common in European languages.
For this reason, deictic usage is highly sensitive to the access that both parties have to the Obj. I am coming home now.
Gestural deixis refers, broadly, to deictic expressions whose understanding requires some sort of audio-visual information. In the past, deixis was associated specifically with spatiotemporal reference whereas indexicality was used more broadly.
To each his own. In general, the more compositional a deictic paradigm, the more transparent are the functional distinctions between forms, and the greater the likelihood that given morphemes or distinctions recur across categories, resulting in a high degree of proportionality.
Unless otherwise specified, place deictic terms are generally understood to be relative to the location of the speaker, as in The shop is across the street. The regular alternation of I, you, we, and s he in dialogue is a handy indicator of the reciprocal Spr—Adr relation.
In Figure 1the Spr—Adr relation consists of the reciprocal orientation of the two parties and the contact established between them, such as reciprocal gaze in face-to-face interaction.
Whether one derives these effects from inferences or some other mechanism, there is clear iconicity in the relation between the increasingly elaborate marking of the form and the increasingly elaborate effect.DEIXIS (Pragmatics - S. C. Levinson) Deictic elements scope to locate what is being referred to in time, space etc.
Traditional categories of deixis are: person, time and place Person deixis concerns the encoding of the role of participants in the speech event. Deixis and the organization of interactive context.
Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Linguistics, Department of Anthropology, The University of Chicago. Find this resource. In linguistics, deixis (/ ˈ d aɪ k s ɪ s /) refers to words and phrases, such as "me" or "here", that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information—in this case, the identity of the speaker ("me") and the speaker's location ("here").
Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning. Linguistics and Philosophyconsistent with the notion of an index as it was originally introduced by Peirce. Various alternative. GEOFFREY NUNBERG. INDEXICALITY AND DEIXIS.
INDEXICALITY AND DEIXIS. this this. in. and. the (i): they. be of. Deixis is reference by means of an expression whose interpretation is relative to the (usually) extralinguistic context of the utterance, such as: who is speaking the time or place of speaking.
‘In concert with contemporary theory, she posits a world of belated, thwarted deixis, of quasi-chimerical example.’ ‘There is another linguistic category related to the notion of deixis: namely, aspect.’.Download